Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) is credited with getting pictures accepted as an artwork kind — motive sufficient for him to be the primary topic on this 12 months’s collection of In-Sight Evenings on the Harvard Art Museums. The ticketed, after-hours occasions, full with receptions earlier than and afterward, are billed as a approach to look “deeper and otherwise” at a single artist or work.
Deborah Martin Kao, who spoke to a near-capacity crowd within the Sackler Museum auditorium, acknowledged instantly that her topic is “an artist who is larger than life.” The first picture in her slide present was of an intense, steely-eyed Stieglitz in 1909, a “galvanic portrait,” she stated, taken “on the peak of his powers.”
Kao, who’s Harvard’s Richard L. Menschel Curator of Photography, additionally confirmed “The Steerage” (1907), “one of many iconic pictures of 20th century artwork,” she stated. The mesmerizing body features a slanting funnel, bisecting gangplank, and repeated circles — hats, bonnets, and naked heads. “I noticed,” stated Stieglitz of the picture, “an image of shapes.”
Kao centered on 4 pictures from “Picturesque Bits of New York and Other Studies” (1897), a uncommon photogravure version and the primary portfolio of Stieglitz’s work. The pictures, acquired by Harvard in 1969, present the merging, clashing tendencies of each Stieglitz’s craft and of that period’s pictures: echoes of an impressionist, fine-art 19th century, and a gritty, lifelike, socially aware 20th century.
The pictures are gorgeous: “Reflections, Venice” reveals a moody, slender canal; “The Glow of Night — New York” is a pioneering after-dark picture; “On the Seine — Near Paris” is picturesque; and “A Wet Day on the Boulevard — Paris” is a picture so lifelike, stated Kao, it’s “like a glistening avenue you might stroll onto.”
But the acquisition of “Picturesque Bits” in 1969 tells a narrative of its personal, she stated. It was a second in time when “pictures’s quest to be artwork [was] not fairly accepted.
The Stieglitz gravures had been the one pictures introduced into the Harvard assortment in 1969. By 1970, although, Harvard acquired its assortment of Ben Shahn pictures, and by 1972 Davis Pratt turned the primary curator of pictures at what’s now the Fogg Museum. From then on, the University picture assortment, which began within the 1850s, gained momentum. Today, by one rely, Harvard has 7.5 million photographic pictures in 47 repositories.
Kao confirmed pictures from edgy practitioners equivalent to Diane Arbus, Garry Winogrand, and Lee Friedlander. But Stieglitz — the person pictured in a starched collar and steel-rimmed glasses who grew up within the Victorian period — is arguably “the daddy of fine-arts avenue pictures,” she stated. His affect is felt to at the present time.
He started to make use of a handheld digital camera in opposition to “the shutterbugs of the Kodak period,” stated Kao, who quoted Stieglitz on “the rotten sportsmanship” of the late 19th century’s pre-loaded cameras.
The co-author of Shahn’s “New York: The Photography of Modern Times” (2000), Kao additionally led her viewers via a survey of artwork photographers earlier than the Stieglitz period.
Among the photographers who “set the inspiration,” she stated, was Etienne Carjat (1828-1906), whose 1863 portrait of a dour Charles Baudelaire got here with its personal irony: The French poet as soon as dismissed pictures as a “brutish aping of nature.”
Then there have been the photographers whose work relied on posed, allegorical pictures meant to imitate portray.
Kao confirmed “The Open Door” (1844) by pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877), whose tender, painterly tones had been a solution to the detailed, documentary qualities of the daguerreotype. The works of Oscar Gustave Rejlander (1813-1875) had been additionally “pictures attempting to be historical past portray,” stated Kao. Henry Peach Robinson (1830-1901) used his photographs to indicate the lifetime of noble peasants, one other painterly custom.
Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) made intimate, soft-focus portraits and occasional moralizing allegories equivalent to “Vivian and Merlin” (c. 1870), the place a harlot is seducing the growing older wizard.
Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936), who referred to as Cameron “the one previous grasp pictures has to boast of,” photographed peaceable rural scenes that recalled work from an earlier period. But he was additionally “a prophet,” stated Kao, “of a … new realism.”
Emerson was amongst judges who weighed in on Stieglitz’s first prize-winning picture picture, “The Last Joke — Bellagio” (1887). The picture evoked the noble peasantry of painters previous, nevertheless it additionally prefigured the ethnographic realism that a long time later would dominate avenue pictures.
By the 1890s, the energetic and self-promoting Stieglitz struck off on his personal, experimenting and looking, stated Kao, however was additionally decided to create a coterie of artwork photographers “with an American heart” in New York.
She quoted an article from 1896: “Mr. Stieglitz,” it stated, “is an artist first.”